How to Find and Remove Table Fragmentation in Oracle Database

Introduction

In this article I will discuss about table fragmentation, which cause slowness and a wastage of space. Fragmentation is a common issue in oracle database which occurs due to excessive dml operations like insert followed by update and delete operations.


Brief Explanation:

When rows are inserted into the table, the high watermark(used blocks) of the table moved forward in order to accommodate new rows into the table. But during delete operation, oracle doesn't allow high watermark to shift backward in order to decrease table size and release the free space.

Ideally once we delete the data from the table, the free space should be released or reused but additionally oracle acquire new blocks to accommodate the new rows for insertion which causes hole into the table.

As you can see below, table contains data ranging from low watermark to high watermark which we call it as a used blocks and last two are free blocks. When rows are inserted into the table oracle moves the high water mark to acquire free blocks to accommodate new rows into the table marking free blocks as used.

But after delete operation oracle doesn't shift high water mark backward to release the free space as shown in Pic :1B.

In pic 1C, we can see that free blocks got released after de-fragmentation activity.



How to remove table fragmentation in oracle?
There are different ways to remove fragmentation like table export/import, moving tables to same or different tablespace and table recreation. But here we will discuss most easy and common ways of removing fragmentation.


Steps To Check and Remove Fragmentation:

STEP 1: First Gather table statistics
In order to find the exact difference between the total size and actual size of the table from dba_segments and dba_tables views. You can also check the last analysed date of a table. If table has recently analysed and stale_stats is no then you can skip this step.

select table_name,last_analyzed,stale_stats from user_tab_statistics where table_name='&TABLE_NAME';
EXEC dbms_stats.gather_table_stats(ownname => 'TABLE_OWNER', tabname => 'TABLE_NAME', method_opt=> 'for all indexed columns size skewonly', granularity => 'ALL', degree => 8 ,cascade => true,estimate_percent => 15);


Step 2: Check table size from dba_segments
select sum(bytes)/1024/1024/1024 from dba_segments where segment_name='&TABLE_NAME';


STEP 3: Check actual table size, fragmented size and percentage of fragmentation in a table.
select table_name,avg_row_len,round(((blocks*16/1024)),2)||'MB' "TOTAL_SIZE",
round((num_rows*avg_row_len/1024/1024),2)||'Mb' "ACTUAL_SIZE",
round(((blocks*16/1024)-(num_rows*avg_row_len/1024/1024)),2) ||'MB' "FRAGMENTED_SPACE",
(round(((blocks*16/1024)-(num_rows*avg_row_len/1024/1024)),2)/round(((blocks*16/1024)),2))*100 "percentage"
from all_tables WHERE table_name='&TABLE_NAME';

Note: If you find more than 20% fragmentation then you can proceed for de-fragmentation. You can also de-fragment based on size you are going to reclaim from the above mentioned  query.


STEP 4:  Check the indexes on the table
select index_name from dba_indexes where table_name='&TABLE_NAME';


STEP 5: Remove fragmentation by moving tables to same tablespace. You can also move tables to different tablespace.
alter table <table_name> move;  
For moving tables into different tablespace
alter table <table_name> enable row movement;
alter table <table_name> move tablespace <new_tablespace>


STEP 6: Rebuild the indexes.
alter index index_name rebuild online;


Step 7: Gather the statistics:
EXEC dbms_stats.gather_table_stats(ownname => 'TABLE_OWNER', tabname => 'TABLE_NAME', method_opt=> 'for all indexed columns size skewonly', granularity => 'ALL', degree => 8 ,cascade => true,estimate_percent => 15);


STEP 8: Finally check the table size and percentage of fragmentation:
select sum(bytes)/1024/1024/1024 from dba_segments where segment_name='&TABLE_NAME';

select table_name,avg_row_len,round(((blocks*16/1024)),2)||'MB' "TOTAL_SIZE",
round((num_rows*avg_row_len/1024/1024),2)||'Mb' "ACTUAL_SIZE",
round(((blocks*16/1024)-(num_rows*avg_row_len/1024/1024)),2) ||'MB' "FRAGMENTED_SPACE",
(round(((blocks*16/1024)-(num_rows*avg_row_len/1024/1024)),2)/round(((blocks*16/1024)),2))*100 "percentage"
from all_tables WHERE table_name='&TABLE_NAME';


Please note that the above mentioned steps is only for non-partitioned tables. For partitioned tables you can move table partition by partition or the easiest way is to recreate the table.


No comments:

Post a Comment

CONTACT

Name

Email *

Message *